- Constrained Positioning: pose specification based on selecting a point-of-interest and an approach angle
- Point-and-Click: supervisory selection of poses produced by autonomous grasp calculation (using a novel extension of antipodal grasp sampling algorithms)
Evaluating the new approaches against the Free Positioning approach in a 90-participant user study, we found that:
- The Point-and-Click approach, regardless of robotics experience, significantly reduces the number of manipulation errors, increases the number of manipulation tasks that participants could complete, all with a reduced interaction count
- Rendering interfaces as overlays to 2D camera feeds, regardless of the approach (even for Free Positioning, which was designed for use in a 3D rendered scene), results in significantly fewer manipulation errors, task completion time, number of interactions required, and operator workload, increasing the number of manipulation tasks participants could complete
This is particularly promising for high-latency applications, as the 2D overlay interfaces do not require point cloud streaming, heavily reducing bandwidth requirements. Providing more information, in the form of a 3D scene with rendered point clouds, robot models, and a freely controllable camera, negatively impacted performance.
We are currently adapting the Point-and-Click approach for NASA’s Astrobee platform.
Resources and Links
- Our interaction approaches are available as fully documented and released ROS packages, with the source code available on our GitHub page here.
- The autonomous grasp calculation algorithm used for Point-and-Click, built on AGILE grasp’s antipodal grasp sampler, is available as a ROS package on our GitHub.
- All of the web interfaces used in the user study, implemented in the Robot Management System, are also available on our GitHub.
- For detailed information on our approaches and our initial user study results, see our publication from HRI 2017: A Comparison of Remote Robot Teleoperation Interfaces for General Object Manipulation
- See our feature on the IEEE Spectrum automation blog.
- Publication of the full user study results is upcoming!